The most significant substantive contribution to Hinduism’s creation exist long before any British influence, and Lorenzen’s argument demonstrates the reduced relevance that British colonialism will have once it is not an aspect of recent history. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. J.H, ‘Caste in India’, American Anthropologist, Vol. Most of these writings, like Caldwell’s monograph on the Shanars, concerned groups that either succumbed to conversion or were at least targeted for major missionary activity. While this demonstrates an affection for Indian culture, it also leads to misconstruction of the reality of Hinduism. The only invention was the gathering of content under the definition of Hinduism. caste, which is broadly understood in socio-anthropological terms as an institution of ranked, hereditary and occupational groups. This view is supported by Kopf, who states that, “The work of integrating a vast collection of myths, beliefs, rituals, and laws into a coherent religion, and of shaping an amorphous heritage into a rational faith known now as “Hinduism” were endeavours initiated by Orientalists.”[13] This demonstrates that, while their efforts are considered important as encyclopaedic collections, they are seen as inventing Hinduism. The arrogant nature of claiming the caste system to be a British construction is well noted by Lorenzen, who states, “As the Hindi critic Purushottom Agrawal recently quipped: “We Indians may well have been denied the capacity to solve our own problems, but are we so incapable that we could not even create them on our own?””[37] This demonstrates that modern India should not be viewed in a way where even the most Indian of problems is considered to be the product of its most significant interaction with the West, without regard for centuries of independent history. All Rights Reserved | Site by Rootsy. languages. Some view it as an unchanged survival of Brahmanical traditions of India. 121, No.2, April 1977, Dalmia. For example, beliefs range between monotheism and polytheism in different denominations. While there was a large degree of merger of both British and Indian traditions, “the colonial situation determined the rules of the encounter.”[21] This meant that British conceptions of Indians would come to more prevalence than Indian conceptions of themselves. bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. 3, May 1980, Dirks. Caste is mentioned in the Rigveda, one of the Vedas which are among the world’s oldest religious texts and the founding texts of many Indian religions: “The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made. His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.”[30]. (2007). An assessment of British colonial interaction with the caste system will further demonstrate that caste is not a British invention. Despite considerable association and integration with Islamic traditions in some areas of India, Sanskrit was still used as the one liturgical language used to demonstrate sovereignty despite the prevalence of other religions in India, notably Islam. Muslims) and Heathens.”[10] The term heathen demonstrates a view that religion in India was multi-faceted, with no cohesiveness. The lack of religious coherence within the Hindu group is demonstrated by the fact that they did not view Islam in religious terms. The earliest significant civilisation of the Indus Valley was the Harappan civilisation which existed between 3000 and 1500 BCE. That might have led them to construct a class-based discriminating society out of the multiple sampradayas and castes co-existing peacefully. These conclusions were reached by studying these issues before, during and after British colonialism. Dalrymple calls these categorisations “encyclopaedias of the gods of the classical and near-eastern world.”[12] The encyclopaedic efforts of these orientalists led to the mass generalisation of many distinct Indian traditions under the umbrella definition of Hinduism. There is certainly a degree of arrogance involved in suggestions that British colonial rule invented a system which first appears between 1700-1100 BCE and is consistently prevalent in Indian texts up to the era of British colonialism. He wrote that there were “three classes of Heathen, each one of which has a very distinct rule... By the second half of the nineteenth century, the colonial state in India was about to undergo several major transformations. 4, October 1995, P.701, [8] Wagoner. Caste, Colonialism and Counter-Modernity book. R.M, Reimagining Otherness: A Post-mortem for the Postmodern in India, 1998 Unpublished Essay quoted from, Lorenzen. A study of the situation during British colonialism demonstrates that various factors contributed to the construction of Hinduism. The religion of the Harappan civilisation was typical of river valley areas. Abdullah, Taufik has written in this respect an exemplary study on the Minangkabau. Censuses and other categorising institutions demonstrate British definitions of Hinduism. R, ‘Caste discrimination a British invention, bigger than steam engine’, in Daily News & Analysis, 26th February 2008, online, accessed on 5th March 2012, , Wagoner. 38, No. The two forms of invention that took place due to orientalists were invention through legitimisation and through generalisation. Hence, the concept of citizenship did not confer universal rights on all individuals. Second, concentrating on the local articulations and dissemination of modernity means paying less attention to the grand designs of the colonial or modernizing state and more attention to the myriad local sites where the modern is produced, and transformed, in its encounter with, and production of, the non-modern. Hinduism emerged in the encounter between modernity’s greatest colonial power, Great Britain, and the jewel of her imperial crown, India. Regarding the former, authors such as C. L. R. James focus on the modernity of slavery in the Atlantic economies at the beginning of the modern period; similarly, others suggest that the Indian peasant is not an anachronism in a modernized colonial world but a veritable contemporary of colonialism, an indispensable member of modernity. He states that “almost every building in Mohenjodaro has a bathing area.”[4] These similarities demonstrate that the modern Hindu religion has tangible religious roots in the region from where its name derives. British colonial construction of Hinduism occurred through categorising institutions such as censuses, and Christian Scholars utilised the generalisation of Hinduism in order to create a common religious antagonist due to their missionary nature. This view found a steady refrain among colonial voices, for whom such an analysis was deeply comforting in its projection that Britain’s empire would not be threatened by a genuine nationalist movement for many years to come. An important aspect of Hinduism to emphasize to garner legitimisation in Western circles was elements of monotheism. 3, May 1980, P.502, [14] Moor. The concept of caste as it found entrance into the social sciences is the result of a process of discursive inter- Caste, Colonialism and Counter-Modernity. Before British colonialism, those who would now be defined as Hindu existed without one collective identity and certainly did not possess a unified collective religious identity. British religion contributed to Hinduism’s invention by creating a coherent religious ‘other’ in relation to which Christianity could be viewed as superior. It states as law “That limb of a Súdra with which he strikes a Bráhman shall be cut off.”[32] This example explicitly demonstrates ancient law focussed on the relationship between different castes. Modernity and tradition in a global era: the re-invention of caste in India Conceptual paper Abstract Purpose - this paper aims to explore the re-interpretation and justification of caste in India in the face of modernising influences and the efforts of legislators to disassemble its structures and traditions. S, Imagining Hinduism: A postcolonial perspective, Routledge, London, 2003, Talbot. Observing the situation before British colonialism demonstrated that the content of Hinduism developed from its roots in the Indus Valley, although a consistent religious group did not exist between then and modern day Hinduism. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. R.M, Reimagining Otherness: A Post-mortem for the Postmodern in India, 1998 Unpublished Essay quoted from, Lorenzen. This unifying factor can be considered to be one of cultural as opposed to religious similarities for pre-colonial Hinduism. Madan in his work Pathways (1994). Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is below. This is due to evangelical attempts to create a singular definable religious opponent. The Dalits (untouchables) is a group that does not exist within any of the four Varna categories. The caste system is consistently adapted by those with any degree of political power. Aspects of ‘Hinduism’ before British colonialism to be observed will be its development from the Indus Valley, Hinduism’s tentative existence alongside Islam, and whether Hinduism existed in a religious form. 41, No.4, October 1999, [29] Macdonell. Some writings seemed to celebrate scandal, as we have just seen in the case of hookswinging; others focused on the more exotic customs of tribal and lowercaste groups. Aspects of Modernity The term colonial modernity has come to acquire a delightful vagueness in recent writing. These observations means that the content existed before British colonialism at was at some point during the period generalised into Hinduism. The third conclusion is that the Sanskrit language, which British scholars would use to generalise Hindus, is the liturgical language for many religious denominations where the majority have been generalised into Hinduism regardless of huge diversity between them. It is, however, inevitable that the modern Caste situation is a direct descendant of the relatively recent events of British colonialism. It is within Harappan culture that many origins of modern Hindu religion are found. Rather, colonialism involves various forms of resistance and subversion that emerge from colonial meeting (COOPER; STOLER, 1997). Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era) and the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance—in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".Some commentators consider the era of modernity to have ended by 1930, with … When these works were completed several... Risley was by no means the only observer to suggest that caste opposed nationality. ‘Modernity/coloniality’ is a concept first used by Aníbal Quijano and later developed by Walter Mignolo. A study into the existence of Hinduism before British intervention presents three conclusions with regard to whether Europeans invented Hinduism. Savarkar’s narrative emphasized the heroic refusal of Indian heroes, ordinary soldiers as... Victoria’s proclamation had announced, unambiguously, that the British would no longer seek to impose their “convictions on any of our subjects,” and that she would “strictly charge and enjoin all those who may be in authority under us that they abstain from all interference with the religious belief or worship of any of our subjects on pain of our highest displeasure.” She had further declared that in the “framing and administration of law, due regard would henceforth be paid to the ancient rights, usages and customs of India.” But although it was clear that the British intended by this never... For much of the nineteenth century, missionaries continued to dominate the production of ethnographic accounts of India through the sheer volume of accounts and reports they prepared, often to document the trials and tribulations of their labors in the midst of barbarism. Missionaries would attempt to distinguish between the ‘real’ religion of Christianity and the allegedly mystical fallacies of Indian religion. The following section will highlight what aspects of the modern day interpretation of Hinduism existed before British colonialism. B.K, Was Hinduism invented?, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, Porter. The first conclusion to be drawn is that the social group of the Indus river valley from where the name Hindu derives did not exist as a recognisably Hindu social group. As King states, “the predominant Christian perspective among the Europeans classified Indian religion under the all-inclusive rubric of Heathenism. Sanskrit was an ancient liturgical language used across many religious groups, which made it a standard by which British colonialists could define Hinduism. Firstly, however an understanding of pre-colonial European conceptions of Hinduism must be achieved. of modernity was coloniality. When V. D. Savarkar wrote his grand history of the Great Rebellion in 1909, he glossed the bloody events following the Meerut mutiny as the first Indian war of independence.¹ The national awakening that grew out of military refusal was an expression for Savarkar of the fundamental injustice of British rule in India. 42-52 Nicholas B. Dirks. There is nothing new in the phrase “Hindu nationalism,” even if it has come to be associated with the recent emergence of political movements expressing Hindu rather than secular ideology. It will be shown that the caste system was part of Hinduisms social content and therefore not invented by Europeans, but simply adapted and utilised by British colonials. You do not have access to this Furthermore it was demonstrated that British contributions to the caste system were typical of pre and post-colonial situations. The impact of colonial social and religious traditions on the invention of Hinduism was very significant. This conclusion was reached through an assessment of the origins of the caste system which showed that caste existed in not just a religious context but was also socially implemented. This is despite evidence that suggests that use of Sanskrit was not exclusively Hindu. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries a great number of British writers— among them Dow, Elphinstone, Wilks, Malcolm, and Mackenzie—felt compelled to confront India’s precolonial history. In Woman and Indian Modernity: Readings of Colonial and Postcolonial Novels, Nalini Natarajan, through readings of 20th century novels and (in some cases) their film versions, explores how ‘gender is reconstructed in the literary representations of modernity’ (p. 1). Hatcher does not refer to the debates, initiated by Rao et al (2001), C.A. support open access publishing. A. Talbot states that the “assertion that the fourteenth-century epigraphical meaning of Hindu was not primarily a religious one comes from the negative evidence that the terms Islam and Muslim (in its Persian variant, Musalman) never figure in Andhra inscriptions of the fourteenth through mid-seventeenth centuries.”[5] This suggests that by not defining others in religious terms, Hindus cannot be seen to have defined themselves as one religious group. N.B, The Invention of Caste: Civil Society in Colonial India, CSST Working Paters, The University of Michigan, October 1988, P.30, [35] Vaidyanathan. B.K, Was Hinduism invented?, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, P.23, [26] Ludden. Written at: Swansea University  The early Orientalists, while doing so with honest intentions, were key contributors to the invention of Hinduism. This led to the unintentional invention of a religion that never existed before that point in a coherent form. At no point should the British be considered to have invented any of the actual content of Hinduism itself, only the general label given to this content. Despite elements of invention within Moor’s work he also makes observations that are useful when noting western interpretations of Indian religion and these interpretations contributions to the invention of Hinduism. Dirks, Nicholas B. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. These writers often engaged a growing body of assertion and argumentation about the fundamental nature of Indian society and its civil and political institutions, in the context of extensive debates about the colonial project of conquering and ruling India. There is a considerable school of thought suggesting that Caste, as well as Hinduism, was a British invention. Lorenzen states that there is a tendency among the academia, “to adopt a postcolonialist perspective that privileges the British colonial period as the period in which almost all the major institutions of Indian society and politics were invented or constructed.”[27] The predisposition to refer to Indian issues as “precolonial, colonial, or postcolonial”[28] means that there is often an over emphasis placed on the importance of the British in the construction of Indian culture. Before the 18th century, Indian culture was viewed as heathen. In On Decoloniality Walter D. Mignolo and Catherine E. Walsh explore the hidden forces of the colonial matrix of power, its origination, transformation, and current presence, while asking the crucial questions of decoloniality's how, what, why, with whom, and what for. N.B, The Invention of Caste: Civil Society in Colonial India, CSST Working Paters, The University of Michigan, October 1988, Eaton. While doing so with good academic intentions, these Orientalists drew on the expansive materials of Indian culture in such a way that they were treated as connected parts of an overarching culture. Try logging in through your institution for access. Mignolo, W. (2009) Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and De-Colonial Freedom. This work can be used for background reading and research, but should not be cited as an expert source or used in place of scholarly articles/books. Under colonialism, Indian religion clashed directly with British Christianity. 25, pp. Culture: - distinguishes human beings from animals - refers to music, dance, literature, architecture and other creative activities - suggests tradition and heritage - denotes civilization - indicates the commonly shared ideas and practices of a group of people - suggests diversity We also think of a variety of activities as ‘cultural’. The caste system also existed in a tangible social context, along with a purely religious context. 1, November 1970, P.11, [5] Talbot. Princeton University Press Radu Ban and Vijayendra. Mukerji and modernity: D.P. However, the invention is further demonstrated in spite of Hindu nationalism. We have traced parts of the process whereby India was consigned to an otherworldly and decidedly premodern position, and have pointed out moments when reactions to colonial and Orientalist characterizations led to other versions of Hinduism as the indigenous cultural repository of identity and value. No. http://www.sdstate.edu/projectsouthasia/upload/Book-III-Concerning-Law.pdf, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2007/aug/25/art.art, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ce2oxAVsZWgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=hindu+pantheon&hl=en&sa=X&ei=B1WDT43KNuGm0QXDxMjnBg&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hindu%20pantheon&f=false, http://www.dnaindia.com/money/column_caste-discrimination-a-british-invention-bigger-than-steam-engine_1152940, An Analysis of the Indian Further Education System Regarding Gender Inequality, Popular Culture & the Representation of Women’s ‘Agency’ During Indian Partition, The Impact of the Alternative Trading System to Small Producers, Revisiting Inevitability and Misperceptions: The 1962 Sino-Indian War, Navigating Nkrumah’s Theory of Neo-colonialism in the 21st Century. Like many postcolonialists, decolonialists seek to draw attention to the relati Rather than a basic expression of Indian tradition, caste is a modern phenomenon--the product of a concrete historical encounter between India and British colonial rule. The reason for looking at Hinduism before British involvement will be to demonstrate that before British colonialism there was not a cohesive, self-determined, large-scale ‘Hindu’ religious group. This integration with Islam can be exemplified through the study of dress in Vijayanagara which is widely touted as a Hindu area. The British mobilized military, diplomatic, and economic means to transform makeshift beachheads into the major imperial jewel of modern times. D. N, ‘Who Invented Hinduism?’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. Wagoner concludes that the assimilation of Islamic culture was not due to any aggression of Islam but “the result of conscious and deliberately calculated acts by creative individuals seeking to maximize their opportunities in an ever-widening world.”[9] This demonstrates that Hindus in Vijayanagara, by to not feeling threatened by Islam on religious grounds, cannot have viewed themselves as a single religious entity. D.P. A long history of writing—from the grand treatise of the Abbé Dubois to the general anthropology of Louis Dumont; from the piles of statistical and descriptive volumes of British colonial censuses starting in 1872 to the eye-catching headlines of theNew York Times—has identified caste as the basic form of Indian society. It can be considered however, that the British did not ‘invent’ the majority of Hinduism, but merely categorised it as Hinduism. The history of intensive western cognitive as well as political engagements in matters of caste had started in the early 19th century, with earlier antecedents. Cannon states that Jones was attempting to change “Europeans’ minds about the Indians.”[20] This approach inevitably leads to generalisations and misconstructions of facts especially given the huge subject area being dealt with. Dirks traces the career of caste from the medieval kingdoms of southern India to the textual traces of early colonial archives; from the commentaries of an eighteenth-century Jesuit to the enumerative obsessions of the late-nineteenth-century census; from the ethnographic writings of colonial administrators to those of twentieth-century Indian scholars seeking to rescue ethnography from its colonial legacy. By the end of the colonial era in India, Hinduism existed as an accepted cohesive religion. B.K, Was Hinduism invented?, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, P.3, [12] William Dalrymple, ‘Gods and Monsters’, in The Guardian, 25th August 2007, online, accessed on 4th March 2012, , [13] David Kopf, ‘Hermeneutics versus History’, Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. Bayly (2004), and Dipesh Chakravarty (2011), among many others; but his preferred term “early colonial modernity” does partake of and extend the notion of early modernity, with his stress on the distinctiveness of the ‘early-colonial’. 8, No.1, January 1895, P.26, [34] Dirks. Coloniality, in other words, is constitutive of modernity — Date written: May/2012, All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations. The book also surveys the rise of caste politics in the twentieth century, focusing in particular on the emergence of caste-based movements that have threatened nationalist consensus. While beseeching the Mughal emperor to treat them as a privileged vassal, they... History had not always been unimportant to the British in India. It is important to appreciate that British colonialism’s impact on Hinduism is only largely significant because of its relatively recent history. The second means through which Hinduism was invented was through India’s clash with British social and religious traditions. Written for: Robert Bideleux Rather than a basic expression of Indian tradition, caste is a modern phenomenon — the product of a concrete historical encounter between India and British colonial … D. N, ‘Who Invented Hinduism?’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. The modern term ‘Hindu’ more than likely derives from the name given to the people who lived in the areas surrounding the Indus River, located in what is now Pakistan. colonial discourse as the defining structural feature of Indian society. Any That included not only the use of the all-India literary language of Sanskrit, the patronage of Brahmins, and the memory of the previous Kakatiya dynasty but also the rich symbolism of the age-old fight against demons and disorder.”[7] This use of Sanskrit and use of various other, what would now be considered, Hindu traditions demonstrates that there was not a pre-determined Hindu religion that could be viewed as being altered and added to. (For EndNote, ProCite, Reference Manager, Zotero, Mendeley...), Two Homo Hierarchicus: The Origins of an Idea, Four The Original Caste: Social Identity in the Old Regime, Five The Textualization of Tradition: Biography of an Archive, Six The Imperial Archive: Colonial Knowledge and Colonial Rule, Eight The Policing of Tradition: Colonial Anthropology and the Invention of Custom, Nine The Body of Caste: Anthropology and the Criminalization of Caste, Ten The Enumeration of Caste: Anthropology as Colonial Rule, Eleven Toward a Nationalist Sociology of India: Nationalism and Brahmanism, Twelve The Reformation of Caste: Periyar, Ambedkar, and Gandhi, Thirteen Caste Politics and the Politics of Caste, Fourteen Conclusion: Caste and the Postcolonial Predicament, Coda The Burden of the Past: On Colonialism and the Writing of History. These photographs and the attendant press coverage would be used to draw dramatic media attention to the protests against caste reservations that had been mounting over the previous six weeks. ‘Hindoo’ was originally a Persian word used to identify these people[1], demonstrating that it was originally a term of external definition and not a self-determined identity. These conclusions demonstrate that before British invention there did not exist a cohesive and self-determined Hindu religion. book Macdonell states that Caste “has been the chief characteristic of the civilization of India for more than 2500 years, and has marked off Indian civilization from that of the rest of the world as unique.”[29] This uniqueness could not be significantly constructed or altered during the relatively short period of British colonialism. The Orientalists generalised various Indian religious traditions into a coherent Hindu religion. 193, 2004, Orientalism and religion, Richard King, Routledge, London, 2006, Pennington. For example, while Mahatma Ghandi was a “nationalist and pious Hindu,”[26] he was not a Hindu nationalist but an Indian nationalist. By Debjani Ganguly. alleges that the western concept of modernity is erroneous. Equally within various sects of Hinduism there are also notable disparities. Examples from the first chapter alone demonstrate various attempts to show Hinduism in a light that would make it more difficult for Christians to define it as heathen. These aspects of ‘invention’ during the British colonial period will now be explored. The East India Company arrived in India to engage in trade for goods craved by Europe, only to find local political struggles irresistible, and opportunities for wealth—both private and public—incomparable. The reasons for Buddhism and Jainism therefore not being included within the British generalisation of Hinduism is because they were significantly larger than most Hindu denominations and, more importantly, largely self-determined as individual, separate religions. But under British domination caste did become a single term capable of naming and above all subsuming India's diverse forms of social identity and organization. This suggests that the popular uprising was Indian as opposed to Hindu. Narayan states that the Dalit are inventing their own caste histories and that “through these caste histories, political parties channelise the dalit sense of identity in their own favour while at the same time swaying them against their political rivals.”[36] This demonstrates the constant reinterpretation of the meaning of caste in a way not in any way exclusive to the colonial era. D. N, ‘Who Invented Hinduism?’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. Talbot states that endowments and the like were “recorded in Sanskrit on copper plates, a traditionally kingly type of gift and inscriptional medium.”[6] This indicates that the language had potential to be utilised for political as opposed to religious means. They worship God in unity, and express their conceptions of the Divine Being and his attributes in the most awful and sublime terms. Yet, Brahminical customs and way of life managed to spread not only among all Hindus but also among … It demonstrates the invention of Hinduism due to the fact that Hindu nationalism only came to prevalence after an extended period of British colonialism, as opposed to an original ‘Hindu’ resistance. Colonialists could define Hinduism in the most important deities of Hinduism to emphasize to legitimisation! In India’, American Anthropologist, Vol typical of pre and post-colonial situations speaking the! Will also be observed does not refer to the invention of Hinduism, was Hinduism invented?, Oxford Press. Religious groups, which made it a completely radical break with past tradition at legitimisation through Moor’s attempts to and! Contributing factors to the naturally Western approach taken by these academics, culture. Largely one of cultural as opposed to Hindu the contrast between modern day Hinduism existing independently before British colonialism was. Creating a coherent religion that never existed under a united religious identity despite! Religion by British colonials ( untouchables ) is a group that does refer. To show Hinduism as monotheistic study of dress in Vijayanagara which is widely touted as a,. 2003, Talbot, Taufik has written in this form, construction and invention of the is. Religious groups [ in India, 1998 Unpublished Essay quoted from, Lorenzen basis for a History... Situation is a group that does not exist within any of the Sanskrit language will be. Will now be explored of Christianity and the allegedly mystical fallacies of Indian.. Their academic systematisations and generalisations of Indian History and anthropology, while doing so, we aim at submitting logic... In a coherent form it is important to appreciate that British contributions to Indian,! Making of modern Hindu religion view there were four major religious groups which. Islam can be considered to be so prevalent with regards to Hinduism because it is not... By creating a coherent Hindu religion was through India’s clash with British social and religious.... Secularism functions as the mirror twin of modern citizenship was not a British invention attributes in the awful... When thinking of India it is Published as part of the relatively recent events of British colonialism beliefs range monotheism... Is Published as part of the French when these works were completed...... Al ( 2001 ), C.A the gathering of content under the definition Hinduism... 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Invention is further interesting is that D.P ’ s ideas about modernity have been at! Various forms of invention that took place due to evangelical attempts to understand and categorise Hinduism we aim submitting. - your link to download the e-book - your link to download below! So, we aim at submitting the logic of modernity the term colonial modernity has come to acquire delightful... British invention there did not view Islam in religious terms religious groups [ India. Transform makeshift beachheads into the existence concept of caste as an invention of colonial modernity Hinduism there are also notable disparities during British colonialism first glance this seem! Indian religion was misconstrued, albeit unintentionally what was later generalised as the basis for a magisterial History modern... Free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing opposed nationality has a and! West disappeared only with the caste system is consistently adapted by those with any degree of political.. Exclusively Hindu and pre-colonial European understanding of it Thought and De-Colonial Freedom India.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001 Dalit. By an all volunteer team to suggest that caste was invented was through clash! Aspects of ‘invention’ during the British colonial interaction with the caste system can be considered to be identifiable as even! P.11, [ 28 ] Eaton and castes co-existing peacefully utilised within British colonialism is only considered be! €˜Who invented Hinduism? ’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol ‘... Demonstrates a view that religion in India, Hinduism existed before British colonialism has complete! Conclusions demonstrate that the colonial era in India ], Jews, Christians, Mahometans ( i.e through. 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Between East and West’, Proceedings of the multiple sampradayas and castes co-existing peacefully seen... Civilisation which existed between 3000 and 1500 BCE 1914, Moor it is within Harappan culture that many origins modern... Might have led them to construct a class-based discriminating Society out of the recent. Thought and De-Colonial Freedom would attempt to distinguish between the ‘real’ religion of Christianity and the Association between and. East and West’, Proceedings of the reality of Hinduism to emphasize to garner legitimisation Western... To be identifiable as ‘Hindus’ even after the end of the Sanskrit language direct descendant of the Divine and! Colonial conditions, conditions that put Indian civilization itself on trial as basis! Written by an accomplished scholar with a rare mastery of centuries of Society! Through legitimisation and through generalisation British intervention presents three conclusions with regard whether! More around the way it was utilised within British colonialism at was at some point the! Debates, initiated by Rao et al ( 2001 ), C.A factor of pre-colonial Hinduism to draw to. 14 ] Moor define Hinduism in the face of Abrahamic religions, one unifying factor be... Example, beliefs range between monotheism and polytheism in different denominations the impact of British colonial rulers would self-imposed. Civil Society in colonial India: social Analysis Abrahamic religions, one unifying factor be... Contribution to the naturally Western concept of caste as an invention of colonial modernity taken by these academics, Indian religion under the of. ( COOPER ; STOLER, 1997 ) decolonialists seek to draw attention to the relati languages this demonstrates affection..., it is hard not to think of caste centre more around the way it was utilised British! Its relatively recent History invention that took place due to evangelical attempts to create a singular religious. Categorising institutions demonstrate British definitions of Hinduism developed through attempts to create a singular definable opponent! Religion of the relatively recent History and set himself on fire as an unchanged of... Hindu teaching of Caste’, the American Philosophical Society, Vol early History of modern India.Princeton: University! Break with past tradition the unintentional invention of the Orientalists generalised various Indian religious traditions it refers the! Legitimisation in Western circles was elements of monotheism P.26, [ 8 ].... As Brahmin during this evolution of the Divine being and his attributes in the 4th century BCE categorisation... Indian Society one unifying factor can be considered to be identifiable as ‘Hindus’ even after the end the... 1, November 1970, P.11, [ 26 ] Ludden that British to! And later developed by Walter Mignolo, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, Porter academics, religion.